Sunday, March 27, 2011

Module 10: The Survey
Posted By: Vivian D. Peremacio



may refer to:
















Quantitative research

  • Statistical survey, a method for collecting quantitative information about items in a population
  • Paid survey, a method for companies to collect consumer opinions about a product by offering them money as rewards


  • Surveying, the technique and science of measuring positions and distances on Earth
  • Aerial survey, a method of collecting information using aerial photography
  • Cadastral survey, used to document land ownership, by the production of documents, diagrams, plats, and maps
  • Dominion Land Survey, the method used to divide most of Western Canada into one-square-mile sections for agricultural and other purposes
  • Public Land Survey System, a method used in the United States to survey and identify land parcels
  • Survey township, a square unit of land, six miles (~9.7 km) on a side, used by the U.S. Public Land Survey System

Earth Sciences

  • Geological survey, an investigation of the subsurface of the ground to create a geological map or model
  • Geophysical survey, the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies
  • Soil survey, the mapping of the properties and varieties of soil in a given area
  • Hydrographic survey, the gathering of information about navigable waters for the purposes of safe navigation of vessels
  • Cave survey, the three-dimensional mapping of underground caverns; the resulting map is also referred to as a survey

Construction and Mining

  • Construction surveying Locating of structures relative to a reference line, used in the construction of buildings, roads, mines and tunnels
  • Deviation survey, used in the oil industry to measure a borehole's departure from the vertical


  • Archaeological field survey, the collection of information by archaeologists prior to excavation


  • Astronomical survey, imaging or mapping regions of the sky
  • Durchmusterung, a German word for a systematic survey of objects or data, generally used in astronomy
  • Redshift survey, an astronomical survey of a section of the sky to calculate the distance of objects from Earth


  • Survey article, a scholarly publication to summarize an area of research


  • The Institut Géographique National, a French state establishment which produces and maintains geographical information for France and its territories
  • The Survey of India, India's central agency in charge of mapping and surveying
  • The Zoological Survey of India studies the fauna of India
  • The British Geological Survey, a body which carries out geological survey and monitoring of the UK landmass
  • The Ordinance Survey, national mapping agency for Great Britain
  • The British Antarctic Survey, conducts scientific research in and around Antarctica for the United Kingdom
  • The United States Geological Survey, government scientific research agency which studies the landscape of the United States
  • The U.S. National Geodetic Survey, performs geographic surveys as part of the U.S. Department of Commerce

    Confirmation of Learning:
              Conduct a survey on TV Ratings of Kapamilya vs. Kapuso.....

    Module 9: The Interview
    Posted By: Vivian D. Peremacio
    Sources: 1.



    A conversation between two people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee.

    Types of interviews:

    • Exit interview
    • Informational interview
    • Job interview
    • Microsoft interview
    • Webcam Interview 


    Several publications give prominence to interviews, including:
    • Interviews with novelists conducted since 1950 by The Paris Review
    • Interviews with celebrities conducted by Interview magazine, co-founded by Andy Warhol in 1969
    • The Rolling Stone Interview, featured in Rolling Stone magazine

    Famous interviews:

    • 1957-1960: The Mike Wallace Interview - 30-minute television interviews conducted by Mike Wallace
    • 1968: Interviews with Phil Ochs - an interview of folk singer Phil Ochs conducted by Broadside Magazine
    • 1974: Michael Parkinson/Muhammad Ali - television interview of Ali in his prime
    • 1977: Frost/Nixon interviews - 1977 television interviews by British journalist David Frost of former United States President Richard Nixon
    • early 1980s: Soviet Interview Project - conducted with Soviet emigrants to the United States
    • 1992: Fellini: I'm a Born Liar - Federico Fellini's last filmed interviews conducted in 1992 for a 2002 feature documentary
    • 1992: Nevermind It's an Interview - interviews with the band Nirvana recorded in 1992 on the night they appeared on Saturday Night Live
    • 1993: Michael Jackson talks to Oprah Winfrey. This became the fourth most watched event in American television history as well as the most watched interview ever, with an audience of one hundred million.
    • 1993: Birthday Cake Interview - an interview of Dr. John Hewson that contributed to the defeat of his party in the 1993 Australian federal election
    • 2002-3: Living with Michael Jackson - a 2002-3 interview with Michael Jackson, later turned into a documentary
    • 2003: February 2003 Saddam Hussein interview - Dan Rather interviewing Saddam Hussein days before the 2003 invasion of Iraq
    • 2008: Sarah Palin interviews with Katie Couric‎ - Katie Couric interviewing Sarah Palin

     Confirmation of Learning:

              Interview 2 foreigners staying here in the Philippines for a couple of months and ask the following questions:

    1. How do you find Philippines?

    2. How about the people here?

    3. Do you find it difficult in communicating Filipinos?

    4. What are the similarities of your country from our country in terms of Culture?

    5. What are the differences of your country from our country in terms of Culture?

    note: Have it recorded...

    Module 8: The Proposal
    Posted By: Vivian D. Peremacio



    A formal description of the creation, modification or termination of a contract. A proposal may serve as the blueprint for a future agreement and may be accepted or rejected by the entity or entities that receive it.


     Venn Diagram of a Proposal:

    Confirmation of Learning:
              Make a sample project proposal.....

    Module 7: The Research Paper
    Posted By: Vivian D. Peremacio
    Sources: 1.


    What is a Research Paper? 

              Words and their meaning will remain ambiguous to your audience and your main objective in writing an academic research paper is for it to be read and understood by your audience. This objective will be defeated if your readers are unable to understand the message in your research paper.
              When you seek to undertake such an academic task, you should know that your main aim in writing will be to undertake an extended definition. Therefore, you need to stay focused on your purpose, audience and tone. This means that your research paper may take one or more writing edges. For example, an extensive definition may mean your paper should be an informative or expository research paper or in another situation, you will be required to move beyond pure information and take on a persuasive edge and this will also warrant you to incorporate some aspects of a persuasive research paper into your research paper.
    Begin by formulating an effective definition. You may begin writing with a brief formal definition and this may consist of a dictionary definition, a textbook definition or your own thoughts. This brief definition can then be expanded with supporting details. Remember that writing an effective definition is a way to differentiate between what your topics is, from what your topic is not. However, when you use this approach to begin your research paper, steer clear of using tired openers such as ‘the dictionary provides that…’ Keep in mind that it is a poor way to start writing.
              Your readers will take this to mean there is no imaginative meaning in your definition and in the whole of your research paper. You should also keep yourself away from definitions that are not grammatically sound. Also avoid circularity when making definitions. Circularity is saying the same thing over and over, or using different words and phrases to define the same thing. Remember that this is just a way to use more words to meet the word limit and a good reader will be able to notice this.
              Always organize the materials that develop every definition you make. You can use so many patterns to develop a definition. You can use a narration, a description, a process analysis or a compare and contrast. Each of these patterns or a combination of two or more can be used.

    Types of Research Papers:

    ARGUMENTATIVE PAPERS present two sides of a controversial issue in the one paper. A good argumentative paper will include in-text citations from researchers that present logical facts from both sides of an issue, and will conclude with the author analyzing the pros and cons of each argument. The confusing element of an argumentative paper is that the author is expected to favor one side more than the other on an issue, but the research and analysis must be un-emotive and factual and include both sides of the argument. For example a student may be asked to complete a paper on "The importance of nature and nurture on a child's predicted teenage behavior." The author may believe that either nature or nurture may be more important from their own research on the issue but a good paper on this topic will include information from researchers on both sides of the problem, and even in this case information from researchers that believe both sides are equally important.

    ANALYTICAL PAPERS also include information from a range of sources but the focus on this type of research paper is in analyzing the different viewpoints represented from a factual rather than opinionated standpoint. The author of an analytical paper may focus on the findings, methodology or conclusions of other researchers and will conclude such a paper with a summation of the findings and a suggested framework for further study on the issue.
    DEFINITION PAPERS are relatively self-explanatory. They describe a topic from a factual standpoint that is usually devoid of emotion or the opinion of the author. Although the definition research paper will include facts from a variety of sources, this information is left unanalyzed and contains only actual facts found in another's research paper findings. While a definition paper might be considered difficult to write especially by those students who enjoy discussing issues from their own perspective a good definition paper can provide a valuable information framework for other argumentative or analytical reports on the same topic.

    COMPARE AND CONTRAST PAPERS are often used in literature courses to compare two different authors, or stories from a particular genre. However they can also be required in social sciences to compare two different theoretical viewpoints; in philosophy to compare the thoughts of two philosophical frameworks and even in business studies where different leadership styles could be compared for example. The important part of a compare and contrast paper is that while both elements in the paper need to be described succinctly, the main part of the paper will be the comparison and contrasting examples provided by the author to support a thesis.

    CAUSE AND EFFECT PAPERS trace the probable or expected results from a particular action or policy in a logical progression that is easily followed by the reader. Used in business and education fields in particular a good cause and effect paper will not only outline the predicted results from the action/situation specified, but also where applicable show the range of results that could arise from this one situation through to its logical conclusion.

    REPORTS often follow a memorandum or similar business format and they are often written to outline a case study situation. For example a report could be commissioned by your tutor to describe the key issues in a workplace scenario - perhaps from a human resources standpoint. The report would include a summary of the situation to date; an identification of the main issue or concern; a breakdown of the elements of this main issue and then recommendations on how to address the issue based on research on the topic. While a comparison essay for example will use "If…but" or similar statements, the report will c

    ontain short factual sentences devoid of emotion. Reports usually include an executive summary that takes the place of an abstract in this type of research paper, as well as supporting evidence in the form of appendix, graphs and tables.
    Interpretive papers

    are often required by tutors in literature, humanities and social sciences and they require the student to use the theoretical knowledge gained in a course of study to a particular case study example such as a piece of art or a poem in literary fields; a business situation in a management course; or a psychological case profile in either sociology or psychology fields. The key element of an interpretive paper is evidence that the student has written the paper based on an established theoretical framework and has used supporting data to back up the thesis statement and findings of the paper.

    The variety of formats and genres for research papers can appear a bit daunting at first glance but as you work through this course you will come to understand the fundamental differences in these paper types, and how you can structure your research papers to best showcase the expert information you have acquired through your course of learning. As most university grade courses include up to 80% of their marking component on comprehensive answer (read 'correct usage of a research paper type'), it is really important that you correctly define what type of paper you are to write and what you need to include in it. In my next lesson, I will give you specific templates for ALL types of papers you will need. With these templates, you will be able to write research papers of any type without an effort. I hope your participation in this course can realistically help you achieve the A+ grade you want to graduate with. 




    Study Questions:

    1. What is a research paper?

    2. What are the common types of research papers?

    3. What are the parts of a research paper?


    Module 6: Comparison and Contrast
    Posted By: Vivian D. Peremacio


    Comparison and Contrast

    Use comparison and contrast to develop a topic by examining its similarities or dissimilarities to another thing, process, or state. Comparison emphasizes the similarities, contrast the differences. A paragraph may use both comparison and contrast. In the following example, two kinds of electrical cable are compared. The aim here is to convey the superiority of A over B for two categories of performance. 

    How to Write an Effective Comparison or Contrast Essay:

    1. Know what organizational style you are using.  Whether you use the block arrangement or point-by-point arrangement, you should be able to identify it.  Being able to identify your organization will not only help you in the organization of your own writing, but it will also help your reader follow the points you make.

    2.  State your organization.  Remember the "straight line of development" that was discussed in the introduction requires that you "tell your audience what you are going to tell them; then tell them; then tell them what you told them."  An important objective in academic writing is clarity, and stating your organization always contributes to clarity.  Err on the side of clarity!

    3. Keep your audience in mind.  Be sure your reader can relate to your topic.  After you finish writing, read your essay from the perspective of your audience.  How will they respond to your ideas?  Will they understand what you have written?  Will they agree with your main point?  Will the support appear logical to them?

    4. Say what you want to say.  Write like Robert Persig did in his book, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance.  In your essay, make your preference clear as Persig did when he contrasted the difference between vacationing by car or motorcycle.

    Finally, to further clarify how it would be possible to say what you want to say in your writing, consider which of the following options would YOU prefer, and why?  To support your point in each essay, what characteristics would you choose to contrast, and what support would you use?  Can you think of any other topics that might be fun to contrast?  

    EXAMPLE #1:

    Coaxial vs. Fiber-Optic Cable: Comparative Cable-Length Performances










              For a number of critical performance characteristics, fiber-optic cable offers considerable advantages over standard coaxial cables. The most obvious distinction between the two is the great bandwidth-distance capacity of fibers. The high-frequency capacity of coaxial cables decreases rapidly with increased length, but the bandwidth of a commercial fiber-optic system will remain constant with length. A commercial fiber-optic system like that of Artel, as shown in Figure 3, remains constant for a bandwidth over a distance of 4,000 ft, while three different sizes of coaxial cable rapidly drop in less than half the distance.
              For RG-179 coax, a 1,024 × 1,024 signal is limited to 50 ft; RG-59 rolls off 3 dB at 170 ft. Larger, bulkier cables such as RG-11 can reach up to 250 ft, but are impractical to install, since three such cables are required for RGB color. Fiber-optic cable, on the other hand, allows transmission of more than 60 MHz video clock over a mile, and 20 MHz over 2½ miles,with no repeaters or equalizers.
              Noise interference is another important area in which performance differs greatly. Coaxial cables are susceptible to induced interference (EMI/RFI) from such noise generators as fluorescentlights, computers, power cables, industrial equipment, and even other communications cables. Cable frequency equalization further aggravates this noise problem. Fiber-optic cable is, incontrast, immune to all forms of EMI, RFI, and crosstalk.

    --Artel Communications Corporation, "Fiber Optics in RGB Color Computer GraphicsCommunications," Application Note CG-1

    Confirmation of Learning:

              Write an essay comparing the Filipino Culture to the European Culture...... 

    Module 5: Process and Description
    Posted By: Vivian D. Peremacio
    Sources: 1.



    Use process in paragraphs to develop sequences that describe how an action is carried out orhow something works. The following paragraph shows a typical sequential treatment of a generalphysical phenomenon. Note the concentration of process verbssuch as to find, samples, sums, and provides.

    EXAMPLE #1:

    Ideally, an image should contain a region of high-intensity pixels that form the target,and a low-intensity background. To find the target region, the algorithm first samples the images in overlapping windows and sums the pixel intensities contained in each window. The window with the highest sum is assumed to contain the target, and the average of the remaining windows is assumed to be indicative of the background level. Thus, subtracting the average of the window sums from the highest window sum provides a measure of the target strength over the background noise level. If an image does not contain a target, then the different between the highest sum and the average sum will be very small. The difference will also be small for images containing faint targets and high levels of background noise.
    --M. Menon, E. Boudreau, and P. J. Kolodzy, "An Automatic Ship Classification System forISAR Imagery," Lincoln Laboratory Journal

    A more rigid process description, filled with technicalterminology, may become experimental protocol, as follows:

    EXAMPLE #2:

    Isolation of RNA

    The homogenate was extracted twice at 4°C with buffer-equilibrated phenol; the first extraction was 1 hr. long and the second, 15 min. Two volumes of ethanol:m-cresol (9:1, by volume), added to the aqueous phase, precipitated total RNA overnight at 4°. The RNA precipitate was collected by centrifugation, washed successively with 70% and 95% ethanol, and dried over CaSO4 under vacuum. The RNA was dissolved in 0.015 MNaCl:0.0015 M sodium citrate, pH 7.0, and the absorbance at 260 nm was determined . . .
    --C. M. King et al., "Comparative Adduct Formation of 4-aminobipheynl," Cancer Research

    Elements of a Process  Paragraph:

    Process Analysis paragraphs contain a number of elements that are indispensable in this kind of writing:
    • Chronology – all actions are described in a step-by-step manner which means that the order of in which subsequent actions are described is analogical to the order in which those actions are to be performed;
    • Clarity – the instruction is concise and uses simples language. Process analysis paragraphs, if composed correctly, will never be written in a descriptive or subjective language and will also avoid opinion-based stances;
    • Explanation – the paragraph explains how a particular result can be achieved.
    In order to write good paragraphs, you need to know how paragraphs are constructed and what types of paragraphs can be used in writing. Check out the Writing Paragraphs section for full information on the subject-matter. Consult Academic Writing Skills section for more information on the proper use of language in essays and paragraphs as well as try out several interactive exercises.

    Use descriptive prose to provide a physical picture or a functional view of the subject. Physical description develops a picture by identifying the shapes, materials, position, and functions of its subject. Such prose often serves as the raw material for more elaborate forms of analytical prose.

    1. Divide a piece of paper into three columns. Label the first column "Adjectives," the middle column "Nouns," and the right hand column "Simile/Metaphor.
    2. Create a list of ten nouns ("First") based on a person, an object, or an event. Begin listing nouns from the top left and move down to the right.
    3. Create a list of adjectives ("Second"): two adjectives describing each noun.
    4. Create a list of similes or metaphors ("Third") for two of the nouns.
    5. Weave sentences together into a full paragarph of no less than eight sentences.
    6. Edit each sentence into a more pleasing sentence structure.
    7. Continue the editing process making sure that all requirements of the assignment are met.
    EXAMPLE #1:

    Boundary-Layer Test Section

    The test section (0.86 m × 2.44 m) of the boundary layer tunnel, as shown in Figure 2, issituated between the nozzle and the diffuser. It consists of a flat aluminum test plate, acontoured wall, and two transparent side walls. A bleed-scoop layer at the leading edge of thetest plate removes the inlet boundary layer. The contoured wall opposite the test plate generatesthe required pressure distribution. The two differently-contoured walls used in this investigationgenerate either squared-off pressure distribution or aft-loaded pressure distribution.

    These distribution shapes . . .
    --O. P. Sharma et al., "Boundary Layer Development on Turbine Airfoil Suction Surfaces,"Transactions of the ASME

    Study Questions:
    1. What is a paragraph by process?
    2. What are the elements of a paragraph by process?
    3. What is a paragraph by description?
    4. What are the steps in making a paragraph by description?

    Module 4: Paragraph Development: Exemplification and Narration
    Posted By: Vivian D. Peremacio
    Sources: 1.


    Develop paragraphs in a variety of patterns that reflect your thinking about the material. As you write the topic sentence and its supporting sentences, look for ways to structure your thinking. Where one author advances his or her material by narrating a series of events, another undertakes a physical description and another undertakes an analysis of the topic. These patterns of paragraph development usually emerge in the process of revision. More than one pattern of development may be used in a series of paragraphs.

    Here are some important modes of paragraph development:

    Use exemplification paragraphs to provide instances that clarify your topic statement. In the following paragraph, the topic sentence is supported inexamples that illustrate, support, and clarify the main point.

    EXAMPLE #1:

     Vitamins and minerals can be added to enrich (replace nutrients lost in processing) or fortify (add nutrients not normally present) foods to improve their nutritional quality. Bread sand cereals are usually enriched with some B vitamins and iron. Common examples offortification include the addition of vitamin D to milk, vitamin A to margarine, vitamin C to fruit drinks, calcium to orange juice, and iodide to table salt.
    --P. Insel and W. Roth, Core Concepts in Health

    EXAMPLE #2:

    The following paragraph is effectively developed with specific examples. The paragraph is also well organized, but it lacks a satisfactory concluding sentence. Respond to the questions that follow "Junk Food Junkie."

    Junk Food Junkie

    I confess: I am the worst junk food junkie in this great gluttonous galaxy of sugar and fat. You can keep your lentils, granola, and prunes. I want calories and carbohydrates, burgers and fries. Within minutes after waking up grouchy and puffy eyed in the morning, I stumble to the kitchen and pour myself a tall glass of ice cold Pepsi. Ahh! My tongue tingles and my eyes pop open. I then have the energy to eat. I rummage through the refrigerator, push aside the yogurt and apples, and there it is: a fat slice of leftover pepperoni pizza. That's enough to get me off to school and through my first class. Of course, I then head to the store on my first break for a Snickers bar and a Diet Pepsi. The "lite" soft drink, you see, compensates for the calories in the candy. An hour or two later, for lunch, I gobble down a row of Double Stuf Golden Oreos and a peanut butter sandwich, all sloshed down with a pint of chocolate milk. Later in the afternoon I stop at Bunny's to devour a triple bacon cheeseburger and a monster order of sodium-loaded fries. Finally, before going to bed, I knock off a bag of Philly Cheese Steak Rippled Potato Chips--dripping with onion dip.
    Study Questions:
    1. The writer uses time order to organize her examples. List the time transitions (see Coherence Strategies: Transitional Words and Phrases) that you find in the paragraph.
    2. What short sentence does the writer use to guide us from the Pepsi example to the pizza example?
    3. What sentence does the writer use to guide us from the pizza example to the next example?
    4. Create a sentence that you think would conclude this sentence effectively.


    Use narration to establish a series of events that tells the reader what happened. Narration follows a chronological pattern of development. It is a convincing mode of paragraph development to the extent that it tells a coherent story. This pattern or time line is usually very easy to understand. In the following narrative, the first narrative paragraph is followed by two descriptive paragraphs. Note the use of transitional words such as thereafter, first, next, and after.

    EXAMPLE #1:

    Containment and Treatment of the Love Canal Landfill Leachate Temporary Treatment Program

    The carbon feasibility studies were completed in October, 1978. Immediately thereafter, the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "Blue Magoo" was dispatched to the site to provide on-site emergency treatment. First, waste water generated during construction was collected, pH adjusted, clarified, sand filtered, and carbon treated. Next, treated effluent was analyzed and was found to confirm Calgon's study findings. After this process, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation granted a discharge permit on October 27, 1978.

    On October 29, 1978, the EPA Emergency Treatment System was replaced by a larger system provided by Newco Chemical Waste Systems, Inc. and Calgon Corp . . .

    The two-stage adsorption system, providing ongoing treatment at the Love Canal site, is askid-mounted system designed for rapid installation. The adsorbers are pressure vessels complete with all process and carbon transfer piping, valving, and instrumentation. Each adsorber holds a full truckload of 9,072 kg (20,000 lb) of granular carbon and can hydraulically process up to 662l/min (175 gal) of waste water. When a carbon bed is spent, the spent carbon is pneumatically and hydraulically transferred to . . .

    --W. McDougall and R. A. Fusco, "Containment and Treatment of the Love Canal Landfill Leachate," Journal of the Water Pollution and Control Federation

    EXAMPLE #2:

    Larry suddenly woke up from a deep sleep. The sun was dazzling his half-open eyes, and he couldn’t figure out what time it was. The door to his room was closed; the house was immersed in some sort of reckless silence. He slowly got out of his bed and approached the bench right next to the window. For a moment, he thought, he heard a tapping sound coming from the attic. Then again he heard the sound, only this time it seemed to be somewhat closer. He looked outside the window and saw a man going by the left side of the road. On seeing Larry, the man approached his garden’s fence and whistled. At this point, Larry recognized Nick and waved his hand. He quickly got dressed and was about the get down to open the gate, but he again heard someone murmuring in the other part of the house. Larry decided to go to the attic and see what was causing this, now buzzing, sound. He got to the second floor of his house and looked toward the attic. He quickly opened its door and looked inside. Nothing was found. He was about to turn back and attend to his guest when he, suddenly, slipped on the stairs and fell. He called out to Nick to help him get up.

    Elements of a Narrative Paragraph:

    Narrative paragraphs contain several regular elements:

        * Protagonist – in the above paragraph, the protagonist is Larry who is introduced at the very beginning of the story;

        * Setting – Larry’s house is the setting. From the paragraph, reader can learn about his bedroom (where he woke up), it is also clear that it’s a two-storey house with an attic, and a fenced garden;

        * Goal – the goal of the story is Nick visiting Larry;

        * Obstacle – what stops Larry from coming down, and earlier on, from concentrating on getting dressed are repeating bizarre sounds coming from all parts of the house;

        * Climax – Larry trying to check what was causing the sound;

        * Resolution – Larry falls from the stairs and calls out to Nick to help him get up.

    Narrative paragraphs don’t need to be chronological. Action can use flashbacks and retrospection in order to move the story forward. In order to write good paragraphs, you need to know how paragraphs are constructed and what types of paragraphs can be used in writing.

    How to Write a Narrative Paragraph

    1. Choose a topic that will appeal to the designated audience for your narrative paragraph.
    2. List several details that you know or have learned about your chosen topic.
    3. Write a topic sentence that introduces what key information will be in the paragraph.
    4. Create an outline of your paragraph that begins with your topic sentence and contains at least three important details from your list.
    5. Write your three detail sentences. Use transitions between each sentence to lead your reader logically through the narrative.
    6. Add your final clincher or concluding sentence that sums up your paragraph without simply repeating the details from your paragraph.
    7. Check your paragraph for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation, or have an adult or peer read your paragraph to identify mistakes.

       Study Questions:

      1. What is a narrative paragraph?

      2. What are the elements of a narrative paragraph?

      3. What are the steps in writing narration?